Short Notes

সম্ভাব্য টীকা ‍সমূহ:

১. ক্রেতামুখিতা (Customer centric)

A customer-centric approach can add value to a company by enabling it to differentiate itself from competitors who do not offer the same experience.

 The first step to becoming more Customers centric is ensuring that everyone has a common understanding of what the term means. This may sound obvious but most organizations do not have a written definition. That’s when different interpretations begin to create problems and the heated discussions really start. Here’s an example of a good definition from an IT company’s strategic plan

“Being Customer Centric is about the ability for everyone in the company to continuously learn about Customers and the market. It is also the responsibility of everyone in the company to respond appropriately to what we learn.”

Many organizations also find it helpful to state what being Customer centric does not mean. It should be obvious that it’s not about simply doing everything the Customer wants, irrespective of the impact on the business. Obvious yes, but I’d strongly recommend still saying something like “products, services and resources should be utilized in line with the organizations overall strategy as well as meeting the needs of Customers”.

২. ক্রেতা ডিলাইটনেস (Customer Delightness )

Customer ‘delight’ is a part of the culture and make-up of the business. It’s the way we do things around here!  According to Chip Conley, in his new book, “Emotional Equations”, there’s a formula that rings true for many:

Customer Delight = Results – Expectations

c_deight1          c_deight2

The figure described

–  Perception is Real.

–  Neither Perception nor Expectation necessarily reflect reality.

–  Key challenge – not only the Quality of Work; but also the need to manage Customers’ Expectations & Perceptions.

–  A Satisfied Customer is easier to keep Satisfied than one is in a state of annoyance and impatience because he was led to believe that service would begin earlier than it did.

What exactly is ‘Customer Delight’? It may define ‘surprising customers with the level of service are provided ‘and when one can create “WOW”. Good customers are an asset which, when well managed and served, will return a handsome lifetime income stream for the company. The best way to hold customers is to constantly figure out how to give them more for less. To keep them satisfied, have to know them by finding the answer of the following questions:

–  Who are they ?

–  What do they want?

–  What do they need? (But not necessarily want, yet.)

–  Why do they like you?

–  Is there something they don’t like about you?

Strategies to achieve higher customer satisfactions are to

–  Perform Customer Expectation Survey (CES)

  • WHY

      To satisfy the customer, we need to know their expectations

  • WHAT

      Understanding soft requirements of the customer

  • HOW

      Explaining the CES and CSS process to the customer

      Educating the customers on its benefits

      Helping them to identify top 3 priorities based on their requirement

      Helping them quantify the priorities

–  Identify top 3 priorities of the customer

– Priorities should be in terms of soft expectations apart from the contractual commitment

– Perform Customer Satisfaction Survey (CSS) based on CES


         To get customer feedback on the service we provide


         A formal survey to understand the satisfaction level of the customer


        Explain the contents of CSS form to the customer

         Obtain feedback using the CSS Form – in a discussion mode

         Provide assistance, if required

– Prepare an Action Taken Report (ATR) for CSS ratings below the target


      To identify causes of dissatisfaction and take corrective actions


     Document the plan of actions to be taken


    Identify the causes of dissatisfaction

    Identify the corrective / preventive actions

     Discuss the actions with the customer

    Track the identified actions to closure

    Inform the customer about the progress

–  Share the ATR with customer

–  Track the actions to closure


Strategies for banking sector to delight the customers:

– PSBs(Public/Private Sector Banks) should also adopt the latest technology to provide e-services as need of the hour.

–  Appoint young employees with fresh and creative mind experts in latest technology and trained the others also

– Introduce innovative and globally accepted products or services.

– Trust should be created among the customers for all types of e-channels.

– Cost-free and cost-effective e-channels should make available.

– Special schemes to install/establish IT infrastructure in each and every branch of public sector banks.

In the words of Maya Angelou, “People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel”

And that’s the point! ‘Delighted’ customers feel it, they remember it, they talk about it and they come back for more of it!

৩. গ্রাহক মূল্য (Customer value)

Customer value is benefits and costs that customers get. Customers choose products according to value that the company create for themselves.

 The difference between the values the customer gains from owning and using a product and the costs of obtaining the product

 Customer value models are based on assessments of the costs and benefits of a given market offering in a particular customer application. Depending on circumstances, such as availability of data and a customer’s cooperation, a supplier might build a value model for an individual customer or for a market segment, drawing on data gathered from several customers in that segment.

Realization is what the customer receives, which includes product features, quality, and service. This takes into account the customer’s cost to use, maintain, and dispose of the product or service. Sacrifice is what a customer gives up, which includes the amount the customer pays for the product plus the time and effort spent acquiring the product and learning how to use it.

The Customer Perceived value of a product is the difference between the prospective customer’s evaluation of all the benefits and all the costs of an offering, in comparison to the perceived alternatives. Formally it may be conceptualized as the relationship between the consumer‘s perceived benefits in relation to the perceived costs of receiving these benefits. It is often expressed as the equation:

Value = Benefits / Cost

To analysis the Customer value by taking the steps of which are as followed.

  • To identify the major attributes and benefits that customers value for choosing a product and vendor.
  • Assessment of the quantitative importance of the different attributes and benefits.
  • Assessment of the company’s and competitors’ performance on each attribute and benefits.
  • Examining how customer in the particular segment rated company against major competitor on each attribute.
  • Monitor customer perceived value over time.

৪. ইন্টারনেট ব্যাংকিং (Internet banking)

Online banking (or Internet banking or E-banking) allows customers of a financial institution to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by the institution, which can be a retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society.

To access a financial institution’s online banking facility, a customer having personal Internet access must register with the institution for the service, and set up some password (under various names) for customer verification. The password for online banking is normally not the same as for telephone banking. Financial institutions now routinely allocate customer numbers (also under various names), whether or not customers intend to access their online banking facility. Customer numbers are normally not the same as account numbers, because a number of accounts can be linked to the one customer number. The customer will link to the customer number any of those accounts which the customer controls, which may be cheque, savings, loan, credit card and other accounts. Customer numbers will also not be the same as any debit or credit card issued by the financial institution to the customer.

To access online banking, the customer would go to the financial institution’s website, and enter the online banking facility using the customer number and password. Some financial institutions have set up additional security steps for access, but there is no consistency to the approach adopted.

Online banking facilities offered by various financial institutions have many features and capabilities in common, but also have some that are application specific.

The common features fall broadly into several categories

A bank customer can perform some non-transactional tasks through online banking, including –

  • viewing account balances
  • viewing recent transactions
  • downloading bank statements, for example in PDF format
  • viewing images of paid cheques
  • ordering cheque books
  • download periodic account statements
  • Downloading applications for M-banking, E-banking etc.

Bank customers can transact banking tasks through online banking, including –

Paying third parties, including bill payments (see, e.g., BPAY) and telegraphic/wire transfers

  • Investment purchase or sale
  • Loan applications and transactions, such as repayments of enrollments
  • Register utility billers and make bill payments
  • Financial institution administration
  • Management of multiple users having varying levels of authority
  • Transaction approval process
  • the process of banking has become much faster

Some financial institutions offer unique Internet banking services, for example

  • Personal financial management support, such as importing data into personal accounting software. Some online banking platforms support account aggregation to allow the customers to monitor all of their accounts in one place whether they are with their main bank or with other institutions.

৫. নিশি মার্কটিং (Nishi marketing)

৬. সবুজ ব্যাংকিং (Green banking)

Green banking:

Green banking is like a normal bank, which considers all the social and environmental/ecological factors with an aim to protect the environment and conserve natural resources. It is also called as an ethical bank or a sustainable bank. They are controlled by the same authorities but with an additional agenda toward taking care of the Earth’s environment/habitats/resources.

Ideal Benefits of Green Banking:

* Basically Ethical (Green) banking avoids as much paper work as possible and rely on online/electronic transactions for processing so that you get green credit cards and green mortgages. Less paperwork means less cutting of trees.

* Creating awareness to business people about environmental and social responsibility enabling them to do a environmental friendly business practice.

* Green (Ethical) banks adopt and implement environmental standards for lending, which is really a proactive idea that would enable eco-friendly business practices which would benefit our future generations.

* When you are awarded with a loan, the interest of that loan is comparatively less with normal banks because ethical banks give more importance to environmental friendly factors – ecological gains. Natural resources conservation is also one of the underlying principles in a green bank while assessing capital/operating loans to extracting/industrial business sector.

Green Banking as a concept is a proactive and smart way of thinking with a vision for future sustainability of our only Spaceship Earth – as design science explorer Richard Buckminster Fuller called our Earth.

 Green banking requires a paradigmatic change in thinking about economics, business and finance. Its success would be greater if the world governments started to revise their economic paradigms from being ‘monetary economics’ to ‘ecological economics’ and begin to transform their accounting principles from purely being financial into ecological/operational energy accounting patterns.

 ৭. পরিবেশবাদ (Environmentalism)

Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.

Environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries and is a key tactic of green-washing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which takes a skeptical stance against many environmentalist perspectives.

৮. এসএমএস ব্যাংকিং (SMS banking)

SMS banking is a type of mobile banking, a technology-enabled service offering from banks to its customers, permitting them to operate selected banking services over their mobile phones using SMS messaging.

SMS banking services are operated using both push and pull messages. Push messages are those that the bank chooses to send out to a customer’s mobile phone, without the customer initiating a request for the information. Typically push messages could be either Mobile marketing messages or messages alerting an event which happens in the customer’s bank account, such as a large withdrawal of funds from the ATM or a large payment using the customer’s credit card, etc. (see section below on Typical Push and Pull messages).

Pull messages are those that are initiated by the customer, using a mobile phone, for obtaining information or performing a transaction in the bank account. Examples of pull messages for information include an account balance enquiry, or requests for current information like currency exchange rates and deposit interest rates, as published and updated by the bank.

Depending on the selected extent of SMS banking transactions offered by the bank, a customer could be authorized to carry out either non-financial transactions, or both and financial and non-financial transactions. SMS banking solutions offer customers a range of functionality, classified by push and pull services as outlined below.

Typical push services would include:

  • Periodic account balance reporting (say at the end of month);
  • Reporting of salary and other credits to the bank account;
  • Successful or un-successful execution of a standing order;
  • Successful payment of a cheque issued on the account;
  • Insufficient funds;
  • Large value withdrawals on an account;
  • Large value withdrawals on the ATM or EFTPOS on a debit card;
  • Large value payment on a credit card or out of country activity on a credit card.
  • One-time password and authentication

Typical pull services would include:

  • Account balance enquiry;
  • Mini statement request;
  • Electronic bill payment;
  • Transfers between customer’s own accounts, like moving money from a savings account to a current account to fund a cheque;
  • Stop payment instruction on a cheque;
  • Requesting for an ATM card or credit card to be suspended;
  • De-activating a credit or debit card when it is lost or the PIN is known to be compromised;
  • Foreign currency exchange rates enquiry;
  • Fixed deposit interest rates enquiry. 

৯. খুচরা ও পাইকারী বাজার

১০. প্রমোশন ও প্রচার

১১. হারানো ক্রেতা

১২. প্রোডাক্ট লাইন

১৩. রিটেইল ব্যাংকিং প্রোডাক্টস

Retail banking products:

Retail banking refers to the consumer-oriented services offered by commercial banks. These services include checking and savings accounts, mortgages and various types of loans and investment services relating to retirement and educational planning.

Retail banking encompasses the services offered to consumers by commercial banks. The term “retail” refers to the almost storefront-shopping nature of commercial banking services.

Most commercial banks have extensive retail banking services and products to reach a wide consumer base. 

Retail banking products: these include


Credit Cards: Offers customers an incredibly convenient way to pay for the things they need, where they need, without having to carry cash.

Deposit and Transactions: Flexible, everyday banking products that help our customers manage their cash and save for tomorrow. This includes transaction accounts, savings accounts and term deposits.

Financial Planning: We offer expert financial advice to help our customers start planning for a better life today. This includes planning for retirement and how to grow money.

Home Loans: Range of fixed term and variable interest loan options to help customers buy their own homes. We can help find the right home loan and provide tools to help customers make smart property decisions.

Insurance: We offer insurance for home and contents, cars, loan protection and credit cards – as well as insurance support.

Personal Lending: We also provide flexible solutions to help customers buy their dream car or holiday, manage their debt, meet the unexpected and more.

Travel and International Payments: Our range of currency solutions help customers who wish to take their money in or out of Australia. This includes for travel, foreign exchange or for international payments.

Business products

Credit Cards: We provide flexible options to help our small business owners manage their everyday expenses and cash flow. 

Deposits and Transactions: We also offer flexible, day-to-day banking products to help our business customers manage their cash flow.

১৪. প্রোডাক্ট সূত্র ডিসমক্রিমিনেশন

১৫. মারকেটিং মিক্স

Marketing Mix:

A planned mix of the controllable elements of a product’s marketing plan commonly termed as 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion.

These four elements are adjusted until the right combination is found that serves the needs of the product’s customers, while generating optimum income. Sometimes the first P (Product) is substituted by presentation. See also marketing and mega marketing.

The marketing mix is a business tool used in marketing and by marketing professionals. The marketing mix is often crucial when determining a product or brand’s offering, and is often synonymous with the four Ps: price, product, promotion, and place; in service marketing, however, the four Ps have been expanded to the Seven Ps or eight Ps to address the different nature of services these are– physical evidence, people, process.

In recent times, the concept of four Cs has been introduced as a more customer-driven replacement of four Ps.And there are two four Cs theories today. One is Lauterborn’s four Cs (consumer, cost, communication, convenience), another is Shimizu’s four Cs (commodity, cost, communication, channel).

১৬. টেলি-ব্যাংকিং

Telephone banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution, that enables customers to perform financial transactions over the telephone, without the need to visit a bank branch or automated teller machine. Telephone banking times can be longer than branch opening times, and some financial institutions offer the service on a 24 hour basis. From the bank’s point of view, telephone banking reduces the cost of handling transactions by reducing the need for customers to visit a bank branch for non-cash withdrawal and deposit transactions.


  • To use a financial institution’s telephone banking facility, a customer must first register with the institution for the service, and set up some password (under various names) for customer verification.
  • To access telephone banking, the customer would call the special phone number set up by the financial institution. The service can be provided using an automated system, using speech recognition and DTMF technology or by live customer service representatives.
  • The types of financial transactions which a customer may transact through telephone banking include obtaining account balances and list of latest transactions, electronic bill payments, and funds transfers between a customer’s or another’s accounts. Cash withdrawals and deposits require the customer to visit an automated teller machine or bank branch.

১৭. পুশ মাকের্টিং কৌশল

১৮.প্যাপ ৩

১৯. ব্যাংকে কারিগরি সৌজন্য(Techno etiquette in banks)

Techno netiquettes in bank:

The use of telephones, cell phones, speakerphones, voice mail, email and faxes has become a way of life in business. However, the rules of etiquette have not always kept pace with the innovations of technology. Here, then, is a primer on the “do’s and don’ts” of techno-etiquette.


Email has become the preferred method of communication for many people in business, but if not used properly, can become hazardous to relationships and careers. Email is a silent form of communication. One can neither see you as you say the words nor hear your vocal inflections; the message is contained entirely in the words you choose to write and send. Because the reader misses out on the nuances of your verbal and visual delivery the results are often miss-communication and misunderstandings.


We all have a love-hate relationship with cell phones. They’re wonderful when we need them, but annoyed when we hear someone else’s cell phone ring or are forced to listen to their side of a conversation. Conducting a cell phone conversation in a public place is only appropriate in an emergency. Remove yourself to a private location before placing any cell phone call.  There’s really only one correct way for cell phones to ring, and that is not at all. Turn all phones and beepers to vibrate only. End of discussion.


Your outgoing message should include your name, title and company name.

Keep your outgoing voice-mail message current. Update the message weekly or daily.

When out of town, state in your message when you’ll be back, whether you’ll be checking in for messages, how to contact you or who to contact in your absence.

When leaving voicemail for others, give your name slowly with proper spelling, company name and phone number. Briefly specify the purpose of your call. Let them know the best time to reach you. Leave your phone number again at the end of the message.

Try not to ramble when leaving voice-mail. Messages should be no longer than thirty seconds.


Use speakerphones sparingly. Whenever you use one, always ask the other party’s permission to do so and identify everyone in the room with you.

During conference calls, participants should identify themselves whenever speaking.

Consider picking the phone up periodically during the call to add a “human touch” to the conversation.


Faxes have the potential for being quite public; they can be read by anyone who happens across them at the machine. As with email, be careful never to fax admonishments or sensitive content. If you need to send confidential information via fax, call the recipient and ask that they wait by the machine at their end. Sending thanks, congratulatory notes, or any kind of inappropriate jokes or pictures is considered tacky and bad form.

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