Oral Communication is a word based communication. In this system of communication both the sender and the receiver reciprocally express their ideas using oral means. In most cases oral communication takes place through face-to-face conversation, group discussion. It may also occur through radio, television etc. When information is exchanged orally between the sender and the receiver it is called oral communication.
R.W. Griffin says, “Oral communication takes place in face-to-face conversation, group discussion, telephone calls and other circumstances in which the spoken word to express meaning.”
Merits of Oral Communication-
Conveys shades of meaning
Can be informal
More effective with groups
Not possible for distant people in the absence of mechanical devices
Unsustainable for lengthy messages
Messages cannot be retained for long
No legal validity
Leaflets and Brochures:
Most business need to attention of prospective customers. It is essential to inform them about to products and /or services that are on offer.
It is important to use the right promotional materials for your business’s needs. Leaflets are useful for distributing to lots of people and for handing out upon request. Brochures should be useful when a potential customer wants more detailed information.
The design of a leaflets will depend upon your budget and targeted audience. A glossy color leaflet would be an unsuitable for a cut-price services.
Brochures should include product description how it is used; benefit to the customer; availability and price.
You may wish to include the business’s motto or logo if it is memorable, otherwise it is more important to give priority to contact details.
Professional photographers or illustrators can be expensive but an appropriate well produced photograph can be more effective in a small space than text alone.
The internet makes it easy to publicize your company service and product information. This does not negate the need for printed literature.
Upward Communication / Letter:
Upward communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher levels of authority. It transfer from subordinate to superior as that from worker to foreman, from foreman to company managers, from company’s manager to General Manager and from General Manager to Chief Executive Officer or Board of Directors. In this way, the upward communication makes a chain. The management comes to know how well its policies, strategies and objectives are adopted by those working at lower levels of the organization. It keeps the management informed about the progress of the work and troubles faced in execution.
Its importance are:
Provides feedback to the superiors
-releases the pent-up emotion of the subordinate staff
-provides the superiors with useful suggestion
-makes the introduction of new schemes easier
Its channels are:
-superior keep an open door
Complains and suggestions boxes
Its limitations are-
-employees are reluctant to express themselves
-employees fear that their criticism may be interpreted as a sign of their personal weakness
-treat possibility of distortion
-bypasses superiors feel insulted
To make it effective-
-superior should take initiate to get close to the subordinate staff
-keeping the line of communication short
-prompt redressal of legitimate grievance
Communication between departments or people on the same level in the managerial hierarchy of an organization may be termed as horizontal or lateral communicate. It is the most frequently used channel of communication. Workers communication with other workers, clerk exchange information with one another, supervisors holding a coffee-break session to discuss some organizational problems are all engaged in horizontal communication. It is important for promoting understanding and coordination among various people or departments.
It is carried on through